Question – 1
1. Which of the following contradicts the image of Alexander as painted by the author?
- A. He was courteous and energetic
- B. He had an obsession for doing extravagant things
- C. He was driven by the zeal for conquest at the price of bloodshed
- D. He was an avid hunter
- E. He found hunting to be a repugnant game
- Answer Explanation:It has been brought out that Alexander has been seen differently by different people and that he had various facets to his personality. There are people who saw him as ‘reasonable and gentlemanly, or dynamic and titanic’ and therefore, A does not contradict the image of Alexander as painted by the author and hence, it is incorrect. He has been labeled as a megalomaniac and hence, B also agrees with the content of the passage and is therefore an incorrect answer option. He had a ‘conquering bloodlust’ and so C is also incorrect. He had a passion for hunting. This implies that he was an avid hunter but he did not find hunting to be a repugnant game. Therefore, D is incorrect and E is the correct answer.
Question – 2
2. Alexander portrayed his image as an aggressive and courageous achiever who would stop at nothing because he
- A. knew his people would not have respected him otherwise
- B. wanted his name and fame to be retained till the time of future generations
- C. wanted people to fear him
- D. wanted to conquer lands far and away
- E. had to live up to the myth or legend that he had become
- Answer Explanation:The entire passage deals with how Alexander has become a myth or legend posthumously because of his achievements. There is no indication of the fact that he carried out his actions so that his people would either fear or respect him and also, it is not implied anywhere that he had become a myth during his lifetime. Therefore, A, C and E are all incorrect answer options. The last sentence brings out that his ‘macho feats’ gave him the chance to ‘ensure an impressive reputation into posterity’. Therefore, on comparing B and D, it can be seen that D is incorrect and B is the correct answer.
Question – 3
3. In the context of its usage, the statement, ‘I hope not to err on the side of gratuitous mudslinging’, is closest in meaning to which of the following?
- A. ‘I hope I don’t go wrong and carry out unwarranted smearing of Alexander’s name’
- B. ‘I do not hope to be on the same side as gratified mudslinging’
- C. ‘I hope I am not party to slandering of Alexander’s name’
- D. ‘I do not hope to take sides with gracious mudslinging’
- E. ‘I hope I don’t go wrong in my choice of words for gratuitous mudslinging’
- Answer Explanation:The pivotal words in the phrase in question are ‘err’, ‘gratuitous’ and ‘mudslinging’. The correct answer option would be the one that uses all these words in the same manner as in the phrase. The author has used ‘on the side of’ to imply ‘amount to the same as’. This means that the author is implying that he hopes that he does not err and ends up being on the same side as gratuitous or unwarranted mudslinging or maligning of Alexander’s name. The words, ‘gratuitous’, ‘gratified’ and ‘gracious’ all carry different meanings. In view of the above, it is evident that A is the closest in meaning to the phrase in question and hence, is the correct answer.
Question – 4
4. According to the author, Alexander was the king of Macedonia
- A. and his men had faith in him and they followed him with dedication
- B. but he invoked the displeasure of his troops when he hunted instead of resting
- C. but his army followed him with dissatisfaction and frustration
- D. and he had the undoubted loyalty of his officers and troops
- E. after he had proved his worth in the campaigning in Asia
- Answer Explanation:The life of Alexander as a king has been discussed in the latter part of the passage. All the answer options refer to his army and the troops under his command. His troops have been referred to only once in the passage and that has been done in the context of his non-stop campaigning in Asia and it has been emphasised that he led his army relentlessly in order to achieve his aim. His actions were met with ‘undoubted chagrin’. Out of all the given options, B and C are the closest to being the correct answers. However, it has not been implied that his troops were dissatisfied because of his inclination towards hunting and so C is the correct answer.
Question – 5
5. Which of the following does not describe an aspect of the conduct in a symposium?
- A. The attendees could drink
- B. People at the symposium used to celebrate together and confirmed their status
- C. Only the aristocratic and selected few could be in attendance
- D. Macedonians could attend only on the basis of their social and political status
- E. Everyone at the symposium could drink, lounge and enjoy
- Answer Explanation:The symposium has been defined as a drinking party where the Macedonian elite celebrated together and it was also used as an event for mutually confirming their social and political status. At the first glance all the given answer options seem to be correct. However, a careful study of the options brings out that the fact at E is incorrect as it does not give a correct description of the events that would take place in a symposium. It has been clearly stated that one could recline (or lounge) only if one had passed the ‘key manhood test’. Therefore, the fact that everyone could lounge is incorrect and hence, E is the correct answer.
Question – 6
6. Based on the arguments and evidence provided in the passage, it would be unwarranted to conclude that
- A. Alexander was an adept hunter
- B. The ‘Hellenic expedition’ was initiated by Alexander
- C. Alexander carried forward the ‘Hellenic expedition’
- D. Alexander’s aims were far too zealous for his men to keep pace with
- E. Alexander was entitled to wear the ‘special Macedonian belt’
- Answer Explanation:The fact that Alexander had passed both the key manhood tests at a very early age implies that he was a skilled hunter and he was also entitled to wear the ‘special Macedonian belt’. Therefore, A and E are both justified as conclusions based on the contents of the passage and are therefore, incorrect answer options. The end of the passage brings out that Alexander’s methods to achieve his ambitious aims were ruthless and his men were disappointed because of this. Therefore, D is a justified conclusion and hence, is an incorrect answer option. The author clearly mentions that Alexander had inherited the ‘mantle of his late father, as leader of a Hellenic expedition’, which implies that he took over as the leader of that expedition from his father. In view of the above, it is evident that out of the options, B and C, B is the conclusion that is unwarranted and is therefore, the correct answer to the question asked.
Question – 7
7. Which of the following best describes the person who is buried in the coffin known as the ‘Alexander Sarcophagus’?
- A. He was not Greek but he still was in Alexander’s army
- B. He was exceptionally intelligent
- C. His coffin has images of Alexander engraved on it
- D. He understood Alexander’s penchant for hunting
- E. He was under the patronage of Alexander
- Answer Explanation:The question is in respect of the person and not his coffin and so C is clearly incorrect. There is no definite indication of the fact that he was in the army and so A is also incorrect. It has been clearly stated that he was one of Alexander’s non-Greek proteges. This means that he was under Alexander’s patronage. Therefore, on comparing B, D and E, it can be seen that E is the best description of this person based on the information provided in the passage and therefore, E is the correct answer.
Question – 8
8. The information provided by the author in the passage refutes the fact that
- A. Alexander had no qualms about killing humans or animals
- B. the identity of the image on ‘Alexander’s Sarcophagus’ is dubious
- C. Alexander was in war against the Persian army
- D. the figure on ‘Alexander’s Sarcophagus’ is indubitably that of Alexander
- E. the cause of Alexander’s death is perplexing
- Answer Explanation:The fact that ‘Alexander’s Sarcophagus’ shows Alexander hunting either human or animal prey implies that he had no qualms about killing humans. Since he has also been shown in a deadly combat against a Persian, it is likely that the Persians were his enemies. It has been said that this image is a ‘figure unambiguously meant to be Alexander’ and this implies that there is no doubt about the identity of the person whose image is drawn on the Sarcophagus. The last part of the passage brings out that the circumstances of his death are unclear. In view of the above, it is evident that out of all the given options, B is the only option that refutes the information implied or provided in the passage and is therefore, the correct answer.
Question – 9
9. Those who felt disconsolate at Alexander’s demise were the ones who
- A. were not Greeks
- B. were enemies with him
- C. abhorred him
- D. despised him
- E. revered him
- Answer Explanation:The end of the passage brings out that the ‘Greeks and non-Greeks who had gladly worshipped him as a living God felt genuinely bereft’. This implies that A is incorrect. ‘Revered’ would carry the same connotation as ‘worshipped’ when seen in the context of its usage in the sentence. In view of the above, it is evident that E is the correct answer.
Question – 10
10. Which of the following is the strongest contender for the reason behind the Congress’s inclination for a secular coalition?
- A. The Shimla conclave
- B. The Srinagar conclave
- C. A positive response from its political allies
- D. The rapid growth of the Hindu Right
- E. It is the only party that can challenge the BJP
- Answer Explanation:The passage starts on the note that the Congress has understood the importance of a secular coalition in light of the rapid growth of Hindu Rights in recent years. This event has prompted the Congress to join its allies in forming a secular coalition which can confront the BJP. The Shimla and Srinagar conclaves of the party were the venues where these discussions were held. Keeping the above in mind while carrying out a careful study of the given options, it emerges that D is the strongest contender for the reason behind Congress’s inclination for a secular coalition as this is the fact which prompted the Congress to head in this direction. Therefore, D is the correct answer.
Question – 11
11. How, according to the author, will a secular coalition help the Congress achieve its aims?
- A. It will be a broad and powerful alliance
- B. It will be able to challenge the ruling party
- C. It will help the Congress understand the importance of Hindu Rights
- D. The Congress will be in a better political position
- E. The Congress will become the leader of this coalition
- Answer Explanation:The beginning of the passage makes it amply clear that Congress has realized the importance of a coalition as that can help the Congress to ‘take on’ the BJP and this is the aim that the Congress hopes to achieve. Options A and E refer to descriptions of the secular coalition. They do not outline the reason why the coalition will be helpful. C is clearly incorrect as it has not been implied anywhere in the passage. On comparing B and D, it can be seen that B gives a more precise description of how the coalition will help the Congress and therefore, B is the correct answer.
Question – 12
12. Based on the information provided in the passages, it can be unambiguously concluded that
- A. the Congress is a staunch supporter of secularism
- B. the Congress does not behave with its allies in an offensively condescending manner
- C. the Congress’s secular inclinations are not completely free of ambiguity
- D. the decisions taken at the Shimla conclave do not contradict those taken at Pachmarhi
- E. BJP has secular inclinations
- Answer Explanation:The correct answer would be the option that refers to a justified conclusion based on the contents of the passage. The statement, ‘This serves as a major corrective to the 1998 Pachmarhi resolution’ has been used to imply that the resolution taken at the Shimla conclave is in contradiction to what was taken at Pachmarhi. Therefore, D is not justified as a conclusion and hence, is an incorrect answer. The last sentence of the passage brings out that the Congress has an ‘overbearing and patronizing’ attitude towards its potential allies and therefore, B is also not justified and is an incorrect answer option. The fact that the Congress is using a secular coalition to take on the BJP implies that it is likely that the BJP does not have secular inclinations. Moreover, the end of the passage brings out that ‘there have been many problems over the years with the party’s real commitment to secular values’ which indicates that Congress’s secular inclinations are also dubious. In view of the above, on comparing A, C and E, it can be seen that C is the correct answer.
Question – 13
13. The author suggests that the relation between the Congress and the BJP can be best described as that of
- A. allies
- B. coalition partners
- C. adversaries
- D. political parties
- E. accomplices
- Answer Explanation:It has been suggested that the political parties like the SP and RJD see the Congress as an ally because BJP is the main rival. This means that the Congress and the BJP are rivals. Therefore, options A, B and E are clearly incorrect. D merely refers to the identity of Congress and BJP as political parties. In view of the above, it is evident that C is the correct answer.
Question – 14
14. Which of the following has not been cited as a reason for the Congress choosing Ms. Gandhi as the leader of the coalition?
- A. The parties that will form part of the coalition were earlier rivals of the Congress
- B. The coalition will consist of parties who do not support the Congress
- C. There is a need to establish the supremacy of Congress in the coalition
- D. Congress wants to avoid supporting the alliance as an outside power
- E. This is the best way to ensure that no one questions Ms. Gandhi’s origins
- Answer Explanation:The two reasons for election of Ms. Gandhi as the leader of the coalition have been clearly elucidated in the passage. The correct answer to the question asked would be the one that has neither been implied nor stated in the passage as one of these given reasons. The two reasons cited by the author boil down to the conclusions that are referred to by the options A, C, D and E. It has been made clear by the author that the ‘potential’ allies are erstwhile rivals of the congress but ‘the very same parties that can be counted as allies at the moment’ and ‘these parties now see the Congress as an ally’. Therefore, the fact mentioned at B is clearly incorrect and it cannot be stated as a reason for choosing Ms. Gandhi as the leader of the coalition. Hence, B is the correct answer to the question asked.
Question – 15
15. The main subject being discussed in the passage is the coalition, which is
- A. not a political party
- B. headed by the Congress
- C. an alliance that could include political parties like SP, BJP and RJD
- D. religiously predisposed
- E. likely to form the government
- Answer Explanation:The contents of the passage make it amply clear that the coalition is a political party and hence A is incorrect. The passage starts on the note that ‘such a coalition would have to be headed by the Congress’. This implies that Congress is not heading the coalition as of now; rather in all likelihood, it has not yet been formed. Therefore, B is incorrect. It has been suggested that the BJP is a rival of the Congress and its potential allies and therefore, it cannot be among the parties forming part of this coalition. Therefore, C is incorrect. The end of the passage clearly highlights the fact that Ms. Gandhi could be considered as a ‘Prime Ministerial candidate of the secular coalition’. This makes it clear that the coalition is secular and it is likely to form the government sometime in the future. Therefore, D is incorrect and E is the correct answer.