Question – 1
1. Despite the support of the President, it is unlikely that the new defense bill will pass. A bipartisan group of 15 senators has announced that it does not support the legislation.The argument above assumes which of the following?
- A. The President is unpopular.
- B. The new defense bill is unpopular.
- C. The bipartisan group of 15 senators is representative of the opinion of the majority of the Senate.
- D. The new defense bill has not been adequately debated in the Senate
- E. The President needs to engage in more back-room discussions before placing the new defense bill before the Senate.
- Answer Explanation:Analysis: As the issue pertains to the passing of a bill and not the popularity of the President, Option (A) is inapplicable in the context of the passage.All we can gather from the given excerpt is that the new defense bill is not up to the liking of 15 senators – which is explicitly stated, and not an assumption. Hence, Option (B) is not the correct answer to the question posed above.The above argument will hold conviction only in the event that Option (C) is factually correct. As such, this option is the assumption made by the argument above.Option (D) is irrelevant to the issue in question.As the advice contained in Option (E) does not need to be assumed for the above argument to be put forward, this option is unconnected with the question asked above.
Question – 2
2. Automaker X has lost over 2 billion dollars this year due to rising costs, declining automobile sales, and new governmental regulations. Because of the company’s poor financial situation, it has asked its employees to accept a pay cut.Which of the following exhibits a pattern of reasoning most similar to the one exhibited in the excerpt above?
- A. In order to improve the quality of the education it imparts, School Z has decided to cut down on the number of students in its rolls from 1,200 to 900. Because this will entail a financial loss, it has raised the fees of the students it will retain.
- B. Mr. B has lost his job as a supervisor in a private factory. As he was the sole bread-winner in the family, he has asked his family to partially compensate for this loss by taking only one square meal a day instead of two
- C. Due to the sudden cancellation of Country Y’s cricket tour of Australia, the Board of Control for Cricket of Country Y will undergo a financial loss of 20,000 dollars. To compensate for this loss, it has planned to hold an international auction to sell cricket equipment and paraphernalia belonging to some of the country’s greatest cricketing legends.
- D. Factory Y has lost 20 working days due to flash floods in the area it is located in. In order to make up partially for the great financial loss that the factory has incurred because of this, the management of the factory has asked its employees to work half-day every Sunday over the next six months
- E. The government has lost over one billion dollars this year owing to tax evasion. It therefore plans to make up for this loss by identifying the tax evaders and imposing a heavy penalty on them.
- Answer Explanation:Analysis: The pattern of reasoning in the given text is thus: an organization/person undergoes a financial loss owing to factors beyond its/his control. In order to make up for the loss, it/he asks associated members to make a sacrifice.In Option (A), the financial loss the school undergoes is voluntary, and not brought about by external circumstances. Therefore, this option does not exhibit a similar pattern of reasoning to the one exhibited in the excerpt above.Option (B) presents a person who undergoes financial loss consequent to being removed from his job. He compensates for this by trying to cut down the expenses of his family by asking his family members to make the sacrifice of eating less. Hence, this option replicates the pattern of reasoning of the passage above and can be termed as the correct answer choice.Option (C) enters the realm of illegal activity and the price to be exacted for it. As such, the situation it depicts is vastly different from the one presented in the given passage.In Option (D), the financial loss to the factory concerned takes place indirectly, that is, through the loss of working days. The effort to compensate for this is also to take place not by cutting down on salaries but by partially making up on the number of working days. Thus, the pattern of reasoning here does not match that of the above excerpt.In Option (E), the loss in question is to be compensated by a move that does not affect anybody’s financial status. Therefore, its pattern of reasoning is different from that of the given passage.
Question – 3
3. Some economists have suggested that giving away free shares would provide a needed acceleration of the privatization process. Yet they miss Thomas Paine’s point that ‘what we obtain too cheap we esteem too lightly.’ In order for the far-ranging benefits of individual ownership to be achieved by owners, companies, and countries, employees and other individuals must make their own decisions to buy, and they must commit some of their own resources to the choice.The bolded phrase plays which of the following roles in the argument above?
- A. It is the author’s conclusion.
- B. It is one of the premises of the argument
- C. It is an assumption of the argument.
- D. It is the author’s comment on the conclusion of the argument.
- E. It is an idea that is extraneous to the main idea of the argument.
- Answer Explanation:Analysis: Option (A) is correct. The premises of the above argument are: (1) The privatization process needs to be accelerated; (2) Giving away free shares will accelerate privatization; and (3) What we obtain too cheaply, we esteem too lightly. The conclusion is that, in order for the move to be effective, shares must be bought as a matter of choice.Option (B) is incorrect, as the three premises of the argument have been stated above in the analysis of Option (A).An assumption is never explicitly stated, Hence, Option (C) is incorrect.Option (D) is incorrect, as the bolded phrase is not a comment on the conclusion, but the conclusion itself.Option (E) is incorrect, as the bolded phrase represents the conclusion of the above argument.
Question – 4
4. Biologists have long known that some types of electro-magnetic radiations such as X rays and gamma rays can be dangerous to human beings. Operating at frequencies which are well above the visible light spectrum, these rays were first detected in the early years of the twentieth century. However, until now, no one has ever suggested that microwave radiation might also be harmful.
- A. Rays that operate at frequencies above the visible light spectrum are dangerous for human beings.
- B. The study of radiation is in the sphere of biology.
- C. To date there is no proof that microwave radiation is harmful.
- D. There have been recent suggestions that microwave radiation might be harmful.
- E. Microwave radiation and electro-magnetic radiation are different types of radiations.
- Answer Explanation:Analysis: There is not sufficient evidence in the passage to suggest that all types of electro-magnetic radiations that operate at frequencies above the visible light spectrum are dangerous to human beings. Hence, Option (A) would not be a correct inference to make on the basis of the information above.It is not radiation, but the effects of radiation on the bodies of humans and other living things, that would fall in the sphere of biology. Therefore, Option (B) constitutes an incorrect statement.The very fact that the subject of microwave radiation has been introduced, and that too with an introductory ‘However’, implies that ‘now’ means ’till recently’, but that this very suggestion in question is currently being made. Therefore, Option(C) would be an incorrect inference to make from the given excerpt.Option (D) is the correct answer to the question posed above. The last line of the passage hints that, in the lines that are to follow, the topic of what exactly has been said about the harmfulness of microwave radiation will be taken up.There is no such implication in the passage as the statement in Option (E). Hence, it is a wrong answer option.
Question – 5
5. Alternate Nostril Breathing will calm your mind and help you think clearly. And in yoga circles, it is considered a fast track to enlightenment.Which of the following, if true, most strengthens the author’s contention?
- A. There are other yoga breathing exercises that are said to produce similar effects as Alternate Nostril Breathing.
- B. Alternate Nostril Breathing is one of the most well-known yoga breathing exercises.
- C. Though Mr. X has been regularly practicing Alternate Nostril Breathing for the past 10 years, he is nowhere near enlightenment.
- D. Ram’s powers of concentration were so poor that he always scored poorly in academics. However, since taking up Alternate Nostril Breathing three months ago, there has been a steady improvement in his academic grades.
- E. David, who practices Alternate Nostril Breathing, has topped his class in Mathematics.
- Answer Explanation:Analysis: The expression ‘are said to’ merely expresses a second-hand viewpoint, and does not serve as a corroboration of what is being said. Hence, Option (A) does not strengthen the author’s contention.Option (B) constitutes a very general comment about the popularity of Alternate Nostril Breathing, but it does not directly deal with the issues mentioned in the passage. Therefore, it is not the most appropriate answer to the above question.Option (C) leaves out the issues of calming the mind and attaining clarity of thought and, as such, fails to fully address the matter in question. It is, therefore, an incorrect answer option.Option (D) provides very little information on the happening it records. It does not say, for instance, how David fared in Mathematics before he took up Alternate Nostril Breathing, or, for that reason, what reason there is to correlate David’s performance in Mathematics with his practice of Alternate Nostril Breathing. As such, this option does nothing to strengthen the author’s contention.Option (E) suggests a direct relationship between, on the one hand, Ram’s improvement in concentration and his better academic performance and, on the other, his regular practice of Alternate Nostril Breathing. Thus, this is the correct answer option for the question posed above.
Question – 6
6. Materialism is the tendency to consider physical objects as more important than spiritual ideals. Some say that modern society’s focus on materialism is responsible for not only economic success, but also for unprecedented religious freedom and social equality.Which of the following, if true, would cast the most serious doubt on the argument above?
- A. Adherence to religious creeds and sects does not necessarily imply spiritual idealism.
- B. There are numerous religious/spiritual establishments all over the world that are extremely rich.
- C. A distinction needs to be made between the religious and the spiritual.
- D. In the olden days, priests were considered the highest category of people in society; but today, the richer you are, the higher is your station in life.
- E. When the minds of people began to focus on how to get ahead in life rather than on how to please God, mankind began to make rapid material progress.
- Answer Explanation:Analysis: There is no reason why the statement in Option (A) should cast any doubt on the argument above. Hence, this is an incorrect answer option.In so far as Option (B) seems to suggest that there is no real dichotomy between religious/spiritual ideals and economic well-being, it certainly casts doubt on the accuracy of the argument above. As such, it is the correct answer to the question posed above.Option (C) has no actual connection to the issue under discussion. Hence, it is an incorrect answer option.Option (D) offers information that is not related to the above question. Therefore, it is not the correct answer option.Option (E) corroborates the viewpoint of the argument rather than raise doubts about it.
Question – 7
7. The founders of the Republic viewed their revolution primarily in political rather than economic or social terms. And they talked about education as essential to the public good – a goal that took precedence over knowledge as occupational training or as a means to self-fulfillment or self-improvement. Over and over again the Revolutionary generation, both liberal and conservative in outlook, asserted its conviction that the welfare of the Republic rested upon an educated citizenry that schools, especially free public schools, would be the best means of educating the citizenry in civic values and the obligations required of everyone in a democratic republican society.Which of the following conclusions could most properly be drawn from the information above?
- A. The founders of the Republic gave great importance to education.
- B. There was a difference of opinion among the liberals and the conservatives regarding what constituted the best education.
- C. Many people felt that occupational training should be given pride of place in the education system.
- D. The founders of the Republic wished to instill the revolutionary spirit in the minds of the school-going children of the country.
- E. According to the Revolutionary generation, the biggest aim of education was to instill a sense of civic responsibility in children
- Answer Explanation:Analysis: Option (A) is specifically stated in the passage, and therefore it cannot be a conclusion.Option (B) is incorrect. There was agreement among the liberals and conservatives regarding what constituted the best education.Option (C) reflects a misunderstanding of the text, which does not anywhere state that occupational training should be given pride of place in the education system.Option (D) is not stated or implied anywhere in the text, and therefore it would be an incorrect conclusion to arrive at.Option (E) is correct, as according to the passage, the primary task of education was to make children responsible citizens of the country.
Question – 8
8. Until recently, corporate ideology in the United States has held that bigger is better. This traditional view of the primacy of big, centralized companies is now being challenged, as some of the giants of American business are being outperformed by a new generation of smaller, streamlined businesses.Which of the following, if true, best explains why the above statement is not surprising?
- A. The information revolution of the 1990s spawned the era of the small company.
- B. Small companies, without huge overhead and inventory, can respond quickly in a technologically advanced age in which new products and technologies can become outmoded within a short span of time.
- C. A few of the bigger companies had developed a complacent attitude over time, and this had adversely affected their performance.
- D. Rapid developments in the marketplace have begun to change the accepted rules of business.
- E. Some of the key personnel of big, centralized companies are leaving their jobs to open up their own small businesses.
- Answer Explanation:Analysis: Option (A) provides a piece of information that is not related to the question posed above.Option (B) identifies a quick response time as one of the key characteristics of small companies which, in a fast-moving age, gives them a competitive edge over the centralized, top-heavy big companies. Therefore, this option is the correct answer option.Option (C) deals with exceptional cases, and therefore it cannot be held to be generally valid. Hence, it is not a correct answer option.Option (D) makes a very general observation, and has no specific significance to the question under consideration. As such, it has to be rejected as an answer to the above question.Option (E) describes a phenomenon that does not sufficiently account for the emerging ascendancy of small companies in the American business scene. Therefore, it is not a satisfactory answer to the question asked above.
Question – 9
9. Reading comprehension passages are long and filled with useless facts. You should read them for their structure, letting your eyes skip over factual data you will probably not be tested on anyway. By contrast, critical reading passages are quite short, and you should consider every single word carefully.Which of the following most resembles the method used by the author to make the point above?
- A. Doing an academic degree involves studying a host of topics, many of which will be of no use to you in real life. The best way to go about it is to study selectively so as to do well in the examinations. By contrast, when you take up a professional course, almost everything you learn will be knowledge you can utilize in the future, so that you need to pay attention to every lesson.
- B. Watching television is largely entertainment. After a point, it becomes a waste of time. By contrast, reading good books not only increases your vocabulary, but it also adds to your knowledge and wisdom, besides developing your powers of imagination.
- C. Yoga asanas are time-consuming, and full of convoluted postures that sometimes take months, and even years, to master. By contrast, free-hand exercises can be done more quickly, and their health benefits, too, are considerable.
- D. Working for somebody else means having to adjust to his demands even when these are unreasonable. By contrast, being self-employed means you are your own boss, so that you can work according to your own convenience
- E. Eating fast foods fills your body with toxins. By contrast, simple, fresh home-made food is good for your health.
- Answer Explanation:Analysis: The method of reasoning in the original passage is as follows: Two similar activities, with some of their salient characteristics, are compared, and suggestions are offered as to how to go about performing each of them. There is potentially a lot of waste of time in doing Activity A, which should therefore be done selectively. However, Activity B poses no such problem, and one should carry it out fully.In Option (A), eating fast foods is compared with taking home-made food, but the other aspects of the quoted passage – as for instance, suggestions on how one should go about these activities – are missing. Hence, this option differs significantly from the passage in its method.While watching television and reading books are the two activities mentioned in Option (B), this option does not deal with how to go about these activities. Hence, its method of reasoning is different from that mentioned in the passage above.In Option (C), the two similar activities are doing yoga asanas and performing free-hand exercises, but nothing is said about how to go about doing them. Therefore, this is the wrong answer option.Option (D) contrasts working for somebody else with self-employment, and mentions one characteristic of each of them, but the question of how to go about these does not arise, making the pattern of reasoning here at variance with that given in the original passage.In Option (E), doing an academic degree is compared to taking up a professional course. It is said that, unlike the latter, much of the former does not have practical application, and a suggestion is given on how to approach each of these activities. As such, the method used in this option closely resembles that used by the author in the given text
Question – 10
10. For many years, Benjamin Quarles’ seminal account of the participation of African Americans in the American Revolution has remained the standard work in the field. According to Quarles, the outcome of this conflict was mixed for African American slaves who enlisted in Britain’s fight against its rebellious American colonies in return for the promise of freedom.Which of the following can best be inferred from the passage above?
- A. Benjamin Quarles’ account of the participation of African Americans in the American Revolution is acknowledged as the best work of its kind.
- B. The promise of freedom given to the African American slaves who enlisted in Britain’s fight against its rebellious American colonies was broken.
- C. A large number of African American slaves in the American colonies turned traitors to the American cause and joined hands with the British in the latter’s fight against the rebellious American colonies.
- D. A large number of African American slaves remained loyal to Britain when Britain’s American colonies began to rebel against her
- E. There was a mixed outcome to the conflict between Britain and its rebellious American colonies.
- Answer Explanation:Analysis: Option (A) is explicitly stated in different words in the passage by the use of expressions such as ‘seminal account’ and ‘standard work’. Hence, it cannot betermed an inference.When the author says that the British promised the African American slaves freedom if they enlisted with them in their fight against the American colonies, but that the actual outcome of theconflict was ‘mixed’ for the slaves, the inference is that the British promise was not properly kept. As such, Option (B) would be a correct inference from the passage. It is, therefore, the correct answer to the above question.Option (C) is beyond the scope of the quoted text, in which the question of the loyalty or otherwise of the African American slaves is not at all discussed.Option (D) concerns an issue that is irrelevant to the matter under discussion, and therefore it is not the correct answer to the question posed above.The ‘mixed outcome’ referred to in the passage does not pertain to the conflict between Britain and its rebellious American colonies, but to the fate of the African American slaves who enlistedwith the British in the conflict. Therefore, Option (C) is an incorrect answer to the above question.
Question – 11
11. Because cellular telephones emit signals that can interfere with cockpit-to-control-tower transmissions, airplane passengers’ use of these instruments when the airplane is in motion, even while on the ground, is rohibited.The bolded phrase plays which of the following roles in the argument above?
- A. It contains the two premises of the argument.
- B. It is the conclusion of the argument
- C. It is a premise of the argument.
- D. It contains two of the three premises of the argument.
- E. It is neither a premise nor the conclusion of the argument.
- Answer Explanation:Analysis: The two premises of the argument are: (1) Cellular telephones emit signals, and (2) The signals of cellular telephones can interfere with cockpit-to-control-tower transmissions. Hence, Option (A) is the correct answer option.The conclusion of the argument is: Airplanes passengers’ use of cellular telephones is prohibited when the airplane is in motion, even while on the ground. Therefore, Option (B) is an incorrect answer option.As shown in the explanation to Option (A), both the premises of the argument are contained in the bolded phrase. Hence, Option (C) is an incorrect answer option.The argument contains two and not three premises, making Option (D) an inaccurate statement.Option (E) is a false statement, as the bolded phrase contains the two premises of the argument. Hence, it is an unacceptable answer option.
Question – 12
12. In an effort to save money, a country’s government is considering reducing its military spending. However, without military contracts, crucial industries in that country face bankruptcy, which could disrupt the economy. Therefore, it is unlikely that the government will be able to carry out its intention of reducing military spending.Which of the following would be most useful in the evaluating the logic of the argument above?
- A. How far is it feasible for these industries to undertake peacetime research and development?
- B. Can alternative industries be set up to offset the closure of the industries under discussion?
- C. Will reducing military spending compromise the defense preparedness of the country?
- D. What will be the likely effect of political opposition to the proposed move?
- E. What will be the public reaction to the reduction in military spending?
- Answer Explanation:Analysis: Option (A) would involve assessing the practicability, from the manpower, financial, and technical point of view, of engaging the industries in question in peacetime research and development. As such, it would be of immense help in evaluating the logic of the argument above. Hence, this option is the correct answer option.Since the setting up of industries is a time-consuming affair, the answer to the question posed by Option (B) will not be of any practical relevance as, clearly, alternative industries are not the remedy to the problem under discussion.The passage does not concern itself with the issue of the nation’s defense preparedness and, as such, Option (C) is irrelevant to the question under consideration.Whether or not there will be political opposition to the proposed move, and if there is, what its effects might be, are not within the scope of the present argument. Therefore, Option (D) has to be rejected as a correct answer option.How the public might react to the reduction in military spending is not germane to the evaluation of the logic of the argument above. Hence, Option (E) is an incorrect answer option.
Question – 13
13. In 1887, Eugene Dubois began his search in Sumatra for the ‘missing link’ – the being that would fill the evolutionary gap between ape and man.Eugene Dubois’s search assumes which of the following?
- A. Man is a special creation, as chronicled in the Bible.
- B. The ‘missing link’ was a creature that was partly ape and partly human.
- C. Eugene Dubois’s expedition was a brave attempt to achieve scientific fame.
- D. Fossils of the ‘missing link’ were supposedly sighted in Sumatra.
- E. Eugene Dubois was a believer in Darwin’s theory that man is a higher animal that had gradually developed from lower forms
- Answer Explanation:Analysis: If Eugene Dubois had assumed that the Biblical version of the creation of man was literally accurate, he would not have gone searching for the ‘missing link’. Therefore, Option (A) is an incorrect answer option.The object of Eugene Dubois’s search was to try to discover evidence of the previous existence of the ‘missing link’, and as such what exactly the creature looked like has no direct link with the question posed above. As such, Option (B) is not the correct answer option.Option (C) expresses a totally arbitrary viewpoint whose basis is unknown. At the same time, it has no relevance to the question under consideration. Hence, it is inadmissible as an answer to the question above.On the absence of any evidence to suggest that fossils of the ‘missing link’ were supposedly sighted in Sumatra, Option (D) is unacceptable as an assumption on which Eugene Dubois conducted his search.The very fact that Eugene Dubois set out on the search in question shows that he was attempting to corroborate a vital conclusion of Darwin’s theory of evolution – namely, that man had evolved from an ape-like ancestor. Therefore, Option (E) is the correct answer option.
Question – 14
14. Woodrow Wilson was referring to the liberal idea of the economic market when he said that the free enterprise system is the most efficient economic system. ‘Maximum freedom means maximum productiveness.’Which of the following statements, if true, would cast serious doubts about the contention made by Woodrow Wilson above?
- A. Germany, USA, Japan, and Canada, which are free enterprise countries, are all very wealthy nations.
- B. China, which is the fastest growing economy in the modern world, has been described as a ‘market-oriented mixed economy’.
- C. A majority of the wealthiest nations in the world describe themselves as ‘socialistic’.
- D. While assessing an economic system, factors other than the capacity to produce wealth, such as freedom, should also be taken into account.
- E. The free enterprise system is a system in which the government plays a minimal role.
- Answer Explanation:Analysis: Option (A) would strengthen the contention made by Woodrow Wilson above. Hence, it is not the correct answer option.Option (B) does not preclude the possibility that, had China adopted the free enterprise system, its economic growth would have been even faster than at present. Hence, this option has to be ruled out as the correct answer to the above question.If the majority of the wealthiest nations do not adhere to the free enterprise system, then the question of whether this system is indeed universally the most efficient economic system will need to be given a close scrutiny. This makes Option (C) the correct answer to the question asked above.Since the passage itself relates economic efficiency to ‘maximum productiveness’, Option (D) lacks validity in the context of the above question. Thus, it is an incorrect answer option.Option (E), while factually accurate, has no relevance to the question being discussed. Hence, it is not a correct answer option.
Question – 15
15. The majority of successful senior managers do not closely follow the classical rational model of first clarifying goals, assessing the problem, formulating options, estimating likelihoods of success, making a decision, and only then taking action to implement the decision. Rather, in their day-to-day tactical maneuvers, these senior executives rely on what is vaguely termed as ‘intuition’ to manage a network of interrelated problems that require them to deal with ambiguity, inconsistency, novelty, and surprise, and to integrate action into the process of thinking.Which of the following, if true, most substantially strengthens the statements above?
- A. If businesses could be successfully managed solely on the basis of intuition, there would be no need for the thousands of management schools that have cropped up all over the world today.
- B. A study conducted at a leading Institute of Technology in the United States discovered that the precognitive powers of 8 out of 10 executives, belonging to companies whose profits had soared in the past five years, were of a superior-than-average level.
- C. There are numerous management schools of thought, showing that there is no consensus among management experts regarding the basics of management theory and practice.
- D. Andrew Carnegie, John D. Rockefeller, and Conrad Hilton, all legendary figures in the world of business, are said to have relied heavily on intuition while conducting their business.
- E. The classical management theory was developed during the Industrial Revolution to improve all-round performance at the workplace.
- Answer Explanation:Analysis: Option (A) offers a piece of information about the origin of management theory, but this has no fundamental bearing on the statements made in the passage. Hence, this is not the correct answer option.’Precognitive powers’ and ‘intuition’ being synonymous expressions, the fact mentioned in Option (B) does suggest that this quality did have an integral connection with the business successes of the executives mentioned. Therefore, this option substantially strengthens the statements above, and is the correct answer option.Option (C) makes a general comment which has no bearing on the question under consideration. Hence, it is an incorrect answer option.For all we know, the legendary figures mentioned in Option (D) may have been exceptions in their approach to business, and therefore, from their example, we cannot jump to the conclusion that ‘the majority of successful senior managers do not closely follow the classical rational model’. Thus, this option does not strengthen the above-mentioned statements.As the passage does not claim that businesses can be managed ‘solely’ on the basis of intuition, Option (E) has no validity in so far as the above question is concerned. Hence, it is not the correct answer option.