Question – 1
1. The director of the Australian Museum in Sydney, Biologist Michael Archer, insists that turning endangered species into pets may be the only means of ensuring their survival. He is convinced that once others discover the animals’ charming traits and begin to recognize the merits of Australia’s native species, their fate will be less precarious.
Michael Archer’s move to turn the endangered species of Australia into pets assumes which of the following?
- A. Global warming is having an adverse effect on Australia’s native animal species.
- B. Traditionally, Australians have not kept pets.
- C. Unlawful poaching of Australia’s forest reserves has resulted in many species of native Australian animals becoming endangered.
- D. Conservation of wild life is important in maintaining ecological balance.
- E. In Australia, more compassion needs to be shown towards the plight of animals.
- Answer Explanation:Analysis: Option (A) is an unwarranted assumption that is not borne out by the given text.The passage refers specifically to endangered species, and makes no such allegation as is made in Option (B).Option (C) amounts to reading unsubstantiated extraneous matter into the passage and, as such, is untenable.The statement in Option (D) is implicit in Michael Archer’s attempts to preserve the endangered species in Australia, and therefore the comment in this option may be said to be an assumption on which the above passage is based.Option (E) does not have a logical connection with the above passage, which is about finding a solution for the plight of endangered species in Australia,
Question – 2
2. Unlimited power is in itself a bad and dangerous thing, and no power on earth is so worthy of honor for itself or of reverential obedience to the rights which it represents that we should admit its uncontrolled and all-predominant authority. When the right and means of absolute command are conferred on a people or a king, on an aristocracy or a democracy, a monarchy or a republic, there has been implanted the germ of tyranny.
Which of the following must be true on the basis of the passage above?
- A. Monarchy is an undesirable form of government.
- B. Democracy is the best form of government.
- C. There is no political system that is free of the danger of investing unlimited power in an individual or a group of people.
- D. Republican democracy ensures that the rights of the people are always respected.
- E. It is only in a socialist society that the germs of tyranny can never be planted.
- Answer Explanation:Analysis: The passage does not make any such sweeping assertion as Option (A), stating that any form of government that lends itself to the absolute command of a person or a group is undesirable. Therefore, Option (A) is not necessarily true on the basis of the passage.The passage does not anywhere claim that democracy is the best form of government, making Option (B) inaccurate in the light of the above passage.The passage mentions monarchies, aristocracies, democracies, and republics, and maintains that, irrespective of what the political system is, if there is any scope in it for any person or group to establish absolute command, then the germs of tyranny are present there. As such, there is an implication in Option (C) that there is no political system that is free of the danger of investing unlimited power in an individual or a group or people.There is no such claim in the passage as is made in Option (D).Option (E) is not supported by any statement in the passage.
Question – 3
3. If the advertising and food industries stop trying to sell high-calorie, nutritiously deficient food to children, and if parents understand that the feeding patterns they impose on their children can determine the adolescent and adult eating habits those children will develop, the future generations may not be as far as ours is.
Which of the following most closely parallels the reasoning used in the argument above?
- A. Doing regular exercise and avoiding fast food ensures that one remains in good health.
- B. Mobility is an essential facet of modernity, and so is speed. We can be certain that in the future man will be both more mobile and speedier than he is now.
- C. Corruption is the bane of the modern world. If, by some means, people across the world could become more honest, the future generations would be much more prosperous than ours is.
- D. A greater supply of consumer goods alone cannot make people happy. The absence of social and political stability causes great misery in human society, and these will need to be addressed as well before greater peace reigns among human beings.
- E. While love creates friends, ill-will creates enemies. Therefore, we need more love in this world to make it a more peaceful place than it is.
- Answer Explanation:Analysis: The pattern of reasoning in the above passage is A (a positive quality framed in negative terms) + B (a positive quality framed in positive terms) = C; that is, given two favorable conditions, one expressed positively and one negatively, there will be a certain beneficial result.Option (A) uses the same pattern: A (avoidance of fast food) + B (exercise) = C (good health). Therefore, it closely parallels the reasoning used in the argument above.In Option (B), not only are both the qualities in question, mobility and speed, presented in positive terms, but the conclusion is not the sum of these qualities. Therefore, this option employs a pattern of reasoning that is different from the one in the passage above.In Option (C), there is no A, as corruption is not a positive quality framed in negative terms, and as such the line of reasoning here varies from that of the given text.In Option (D), there is no positive quality expressed in negative terms, and hence the pattern of the premises is different from that of the quoted passage.Option (E) has no equivalent of B (a positive quality expressed in positive terms), and therefore this option does not parallel the reasoning used in the argument above.
Question – 4
4. There is widespread belief that the emergence of giant industries has been accompanied by an equivalent surge in industrial research. A recent study of important inventions made since the turn of the century reveals that more than half were the product of individual inventors working alone, independent of organized industrial research.
Which of the following, if true, gives the most support to the recent study of inventions?
- A. Monopolistic power creates an environment supportive of innovation.
- B. The independent inventor, along with the small firm, cannot afford to undertake the important research needed to improve our standard of living while protecting our diminishing resources.
- C. Industrial laboratories contributed such important products as nylon and transistors.
- D. Independent inventors developed air conditioning, the automatic transmission, the jet engine, the helicopter, insulin, and streptomycin.
- E. Stainless steel, television, silicones, and Plexiglas were developed through the combined efforts of individuals and laboratory teams.
- Answer Explanation:Analysis: Since monopolistic power can only be exercised by giant industries, Option (A) is not supportive of the study referred to.By underlining a serious handicap that the independent inventor faces, Option (B) fails to lend any support to the mentioned study of inventions.Option (C) highlights the contribution of industrial laboratories and, by so doing, emphasizes their merits rather than take up the cause of individual inventors, which the study does.By listing a wide range of historical inventions made by individual inventors, Option (D) tries to corroborate the contention of the recent study that more than half of the important inventions made since the turn of the century were made by individual inventors working alone.Option (E), in speaking of the combined efforts of individuals and laboratory teams, neither supports nor contradicts the study in question.
Question – 5
5. What accounts for the upsurge in unionization among clerical workers? First, more women have entered the work force in the past few years, and more of them plan to remain working until retirement age.
Which of the following pieces of information would be most useful in evaluating the validity of the claim made in the statement above?
- A. What percentage of clerical workers are members of unions?
- B. Over the last three years, what has been the increase in the percentage of clerical workers who have joined unions?
- C. Why are more women clerical workers planning to remain working until retirement age?
- D. On what statistical evidence is the author claiming that more women plan to remain working until retirement age?
- E. What has been the rate of increase in the number of women clerical workers over the past five years?
- Answer Explanation:Analysis: Since the claim in question is directly related to women, the general percentage of unionized clerical workers is not pertinent to it, making Option (A) irrelevant to the evaluation in question.Option (B) is also about clerical workers as a whole, rather than specifically about women clerical workers, and as such it would be of no use in evaluating the validity of the claim made in the statement above.The question contained in Option (C) does not relate to the number of women who have entered the work force in the past few years. Therefore, it would not be useful in supporting the mentioned claim.The statistical evidence required by Option (D) would not indicate an increase in the women work force and, as such, would not strengthen the above claim.The claim made in the statement above can only be substantiated by giving details of the growth of the women work force – details which the answer to Option (E) would provide. Therefore, it is the piece of information in Option (E) that would be the most useful in evaluating the validity of the claim under discussion.
Question – 6
6. A telephone poll conducted over two states asked respondents whether their homes were ever cold during the winter months. 99% of respondents said they were never cold during the winter months. The pollsters published their findings, concluding that 99% of all homes in the two states have adequate heating.
Which of the following, if true, would most seriously weaken the conclusion of the pollsters?
- A. Some of those who responded to the question over phone were not the heads of their families.
- B. The states where the poll was conducted were two of the less cold states in the country.
- C. The sampling of respondents who were contacted for the poll belonged to the upper sections of society.
- D. The pollsters included college students who were new to the job.
- E. The respondents who said that they felt cold were over the age of 60.
- Answer Explanation:Analysis: Since not being the head of the family is no bar to responding to the question, Option (A) does not weaken the conclusion of the pollsters in any way.As the statement in Option (B) has no bearing whatsoever on the conclusion of the pollsters, it does not weaken it.If the sampling of any poll which is supposed to be representative of an entire state is restricted to a particular category of people, then the result of the poll automatically loses its value. Hence, Option (C) weakens the conclusion of the pollsters.As suitably briefed, college students may be considered legitimate candidates for conducting a poll, the statement in Option (D) does not compromise the validity of the poll.Option (E) neither weakens nor strengthens the conclusion of the pollsters.
Question – 7
7. An excess of carbon dioxide-a chemical produced in great quantities by automobiles, manufacturing, and human beings-is thought to cause global warming and a host of other environmental problems. An effective solution to the problem of air pollution could simply be the planting of more trees by the government. Because trees and other green plants consume carbon dioxide and produce oxygen, a greater number of trees could reduce the amount of carbon dioxide in the air, thus decreasing the negative effect on the environment.
Which of the following statements, if true, provides the best evidence that the reasoning of the passage above is flawed?
- A. Globally, more and more deforestation is taking place in the wake of increasing urbanization.
- B. Trees cannot lessen the concentration of other harmful pollutants such as carbon monoxide.
- C. The issue of global warming is a controversial one, on which there are divergent views.
- D. We could store millions of tons of carbon in the ocean if we encourage the growth of marine plants.
- E. Transporting people and goods impact greenhouse gas emissions to a greater degree than all industrial manufacturing does.
- Answer Explanation:Analysis: It is precisely because more and more deforestation is taking place, that the planting of trees becomes more necessary. As such, Option (A) does not provide any evidence that the reasoning of the passage above is flawed.The passage basically deals with the effort to deal with the negative effects of excessive carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, but not with the entire ‘problem of air pollution’ as such. This is where the reasoning of the above passage is flawed, as Option (B) aptly points out.Irrespective of global warming, it is a recognized fact that excess of carbon dioxide is extremely harmful to human life. Hence, Option (C) in no way undermines the reasoning of the given passage.Option (D) provides an alternative solution to the problem of air pollution, but it does not in any way expose any flaw of reasoning in the quoted text.Option (E) could be seen as a reason for planting more trees, rather than as evidence that the reasoning of the passage above is flawed.
Question – 8
8. There is a division of labor evident in the development of human societies. Prehistoric males became specialized as group-hunters, while the females concentrated on food-gathering and childbearing. This difference contributed to a human male ‘pack mentality’ that is far less marked in females.
Which of the following can properly be inferred on the basis of the passage above?
- A. Despite human progress, human beings are fundamentally primitive in nature.
- B. In the natural order of things, the place of a woman is at home.
- C. Human beings carry traces of their distant ancestry in their psychological make-up.
- D. There was far less group activity involved in food-gathering and childbearing than there was in hunting.
- E. When prehistoric women indulged in hunting, it was the exception rather than the rule.
- Answer Explanation:Analysis: There is no implication in the given passage that human beings are fundamentally primitive in nature. Hence, Option (A) would amount to an incorrect inference.Option (B) would constitute a misunderstanding of the quoted text.The passage maintains that, to this day, human males display a ‘pack mentality’ that is significantly more marked than that displayed by women, and attributes this to the prehistoric role played by men and women respectively in society. Hence, Option (C) is an accurate inference on the basis of the passage above.Option (D) is indirectly stated in the text itself, by pitting the food-gathering and childbearing role of women against the group activity of hunting that men participated in. Therefore, it cannot be termed as an inference.Option (E) is nowhere hinted at in the text, and is a statement that is independent of the passage.
Question – 9
9. The daily journey from his home to his office takes John Bond on average an hour and 35 minutes by car. A friend has told him of a different route that is longer in mileage, but will only take an hour and a quarter on average.
Which of the following, if true, best reconciles the seeming discrepancy described above?
- A. The different route contains stretches of roads where it is possible to drive at higher speeds.
- B. John Bond has two close friends on the route he normally takes.
- C. In his daily journey from his home to his office, John Bond is occasionally required to make a few stops in connection with his work
- D. In his daily journey from his home to his office, John Bond has once or twice stopped by at a restaurant for breakfast. There is no restaurant on the other route.
- E. There are three railway crossings on the route John Bond takes, but there are no such crossings on the route suggested by his friend.
- Answer Explanation:Analysis: Option (A) says that, all things considered, it is possible to drive faster on the different route than on the route John Bond is accustomed to taking. This is a perfectly plausible explanation, and satisfactorily reconciles the seeming discrepancy described in the passage.Option (B) implies that every day John Bond stops by at one or both of his friends’ places en route to work, which is not at all a reasonable assumption to make.If John Bond is only occasionally required to carry out some work on his accustomed route, that would not significantly affect the average time he takes to reach his office. As such, Option (C) does not satisfactorily explain the seeming discrepancy of the statements in the passage.Option (D) mentions an exceptional situation, and therefore it cannot be considered a reason for the discrepancy under discussion.Option (E) could be a possible cause for delay on the original route, but the reason implied here – that John Bond is often held up at one or more of these crossings – is much less convincing than that in Option (A), where the mentioned state of affairs applies to all days, and not to particular days.
Question – 10
10. The history of aesthetics affords more examples of a didactic than of a hedonist view. But Shaw’s didacticism takes an unusual turn in its application to the history of arts. Shaw holds that ideas are a most important part of a work of art, and that ideas go out of date.
Which of the following conclusions is best supported by Shaw’s belief as expressed in the passage above?
- A. Great works of art are in all respects eternal.
- B. Even the best works of art go out of date.
- C. Great works of art are didactic in nature.
- D. A work of art must embody eternal ideas to be considered great.
- E. There can be no great work of art based on hedonistic ideas.
- Answer Explanation:Analysis: The phrase in the passage that says that ‘ideas go out of date’, along with Shaw’s assertion that ideas are a most important part of a work of art, imply that great works of art too go out of date. Therefore, Option (A) is not supported by Shaw’s above-mentioned belief.Option (B) is clearly implicit in Shaw’s point of view on art, which puts this option in full agreement with Shaw’s belief as expressed in the passage above.The quoted passage merely speaks of there being ‘more examples of a didactic than of a hedonistic view” in the history of aesthetics, and therefore Option (C) neither confirms nor opposes Shaw’s viewpoint under discussion.Since, on the basis of the above passage, Shaw was not a believer in eternal ideas, Option (D) is not a reflection of his views on art.The quoted extract takes no position vis-a-vis Option (E), which, therefore, cannot be said to be supported by Shaw’s stance on art.
Question – 11
11. The Black gospel music of the early twentieth century differed in important ways from the slave spirituals. Whereas spirituals were created and disseminated in folk fashion, gospel music was composed, published, copyrighted, and sold by professionals. Nevertheless, improvisation remained central to gospel music.
Which of the following statements, if true, most strengthens the author’s contention that improvisation remained central to Black gospel music?
- A. Both Black gospel music and slave spirituals were integral to the ethos of Black people.
- B. Black gospel singers rarely sang a song precisely the same way twice, and never according to its exact musical notation.
- C. The capacity of Black musicians to improvise is also in clear evidence in the style of music known as jazz.
- D. There are points of similarity between Black gospel music and slave spirituals.
- E. Black gospel music is characterized by its soft and soulful sounds.
- Answer Explanation:Analysis: Option (A) does not in any way relate to the author’s contention as described in the passage above.The very fact that Black gospel singers sang the same song differently every time they sang it is evidence of the improvisation in Black gospel music. Therefore, Option (B) significantly strengthens the author’s stated contention.Option (C) is unconnected to the issue of improvisation in Black gospel music.Option (D) does not address the topic of improvisation in Black gospel music.Option (E) neither strengthens nor weakens the author’s viewpoint in question.
Question – 12
12. Some observers have attributed the dramatic growth in temporary employment that occurred in the United States during the 1980’s to increased participation in the workforce by certain groups, such as first-time or reentering workers, who supposedly prefer such arrangements.
Which of the following, if true, most seriously weakens the conclusion drawn by the observers mentioned in the passage?
- A. Through the 1980’s, the increase in participation in the workforce by first-timers ranged between 15 and 25%.
- B. First-time workers preferred temporary employment because they were unsure as to whether the jobs they had taken up would be to their liking in the long run.
- C. The 1980’s witnessed a 5% increase in the number of people who were re-entering the job market after a temporary break in work.
- D. Temporary employment was favored by employers who were adapting to fluctuating demand for products while at the same time seeking to reduce overall labor costs.
- E. Temporary employment afforded workers greater freedom to leave their jobs at short notice.
- Answer Explanation:Analysis: Option (A) strengthens, rather than weakens, the observation made in the passage.Option (B) corroborates the conclusion drawn by the observers mentioned in the passage.Option (C) supports the contention made by the observers in question.Option (D) clearly states that the said dramatic growth in temporary employment was triggered by the employers rather than by the employees, and ascribes two sound reasons for the same: a fluctuating demand for products, and a desire to reduce labor costs. As such, it seriously weakens the conclusion drawn by the observers mentioned in the passage.Option (E) lends credibility to the opinion expressed by the observers under discussion.
Question – 13
13. The belief that art originates in intuitive rather than rational faculties was worked out historically and philosophically in the somewhat wearisome volumes of Benedetto Croce, who, in the general opinion, is the originator of a new aesthetic.
The answer to which of the following questions would be most useful in evaluating the accuracy of the general opinion cited above?
- A. What were the academic credentials of Benedetto Croce?
- B. What was Benedetto Croce’s background in art?
- C. What historical and philosophical reasons did Benedetto Croce give for his belief that art originates in intuition?
- D. Are there any records of other individuals or schools of thought prior to Benedetto Croce who/which held that art had its origin in intuition?
- E. Are there individuals or schools of thought that believe that art is driven by the rational faculties?
- Answer Explanation:Analysis: Whether or not Benedetto Croce was the originator of a new aesthetic has nothing to do with his academic credentials, and therefore Option (A) has no bearing on the general opinion that has been mentioned.Granting, for the sake of argument, that Benedetto Croce did have a rich background in art, that by itself is no guarantee that he originated a new aesthetic. As such, the answer to Option (B) does not, in any way, enable us to make the evaluation in question.Option (C) is irrelevant to the question asked.Option (D) would naturally throw light on whether the belief that art originates in intuition was indeed first formulated by Benedetto Croce, or whether it is a belief that others too had held before him. Hence, the answer to this option would be most useful in evaluating the accuracy of the general opinion cited above.The answer to Option (E) would in no way facilitate the evaluation of the accuracy of the opinion under discussion.
Question – 14
14. The Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer, signed in 1987 by more than 150 nations, has attained its short-term goals: it has decreased the rate of increase in amounts of most ozone-depleting chemicals reaching the atmosphere and has even reduced the atmospheric levels of some of them.
The passage above makes which of the following assumptions?
- A. Many nations met at Montreal to discuss what steps to take regarding the depletion of the Ozone Layer.
- B. Canada was the prime mover in international efforts to control the depletion of the Ozone Layer.
- C. The harmful effects of the depletion of the Ozone Layer are an established fact, and measures need to be taken to minimize these.
- D. The depletion of the Ozone Layer is related to air pollution.
- E. The depletion of the Ozone Layer is irreversible.
- Answer Explanation:Analysis: Option (A) can be inferred from the passage above. It is not an assumption.Option (B) is not an assumption, but an unsupported inference from the quoted text.The assumption on which the passage is based is that numerous countries across the globe recognize the dangers inherent in the depletion of the Ozone Layer and are desirous of addressing the issue urgently. As such, Option (C) is the assumption that the passage makes.Option (D) is unrelated to the given passage.Option (E) is an unwarranted assumption that is not supported by the above text.
Question – 15
15. When A. Philip Randolph assumed the leadership of the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters, he began a ten-year battle to win recognition from the Pullman Company, the largest private employer of Black people in the United States and the company that controlled the railroad industry’s sleeping car and parlor service. In 1935 the Brotherhood became the first Black union recognized by a major corporation. Randolph’s efforts in the battle helped transform the attitude of Black workers toward unions and toward themselves as an identifiable group.
Which of the following must be true on the basis of the passage above?
- A. It was Blacks who were responsible for beginning the trade union movement in the United States.
- B. In the period in question, the railways in the United States were under the control of the Pullman Company.
- C. For the first ten years since its inception, the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters functioned as an illegal union.
- D. The Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters resorted to strikes to press home their demand for recognition as a union.
- E. At first, Black workers were disinclined to join the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters.
- Answer Explanation:Analysis: No such claim as is given in Option (A) is mentioned or implied in the quoted text.The passage clearly states that the Pullman Company ‘controlled the railroad industry’s sleeping car and parlor service.’ Therefore, Option (B) constitutes an inaccurate statement.What the passage implies is that, during the first ten years of its existence, the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters was officially unrecognized, which does not connote that it was illegal. As such, Option (C) is an incorrect inference made from the passage.Option (D) introduces a topic that has not even been hinted at in the passage, and therefore it is a false conclusion.That Option (E) is true is evident from the last sentence of the above passage which says, ‘Randolph’s efforts …helped transform the attitude of Black workers toward unions …