Question – 1
1. The facts provided in the passage conclusively indicate that the BJP
- A. is an independent political party and has never been part of an alliance
- B. has allies who could join the Congress alliance depending upon the situation
- C. is not intimidated by the smaller parties being taken into the Congress’s folds
- D. was never in power at the centre
- E. has never utilized coalition politics for coming into power at the centre
- Answer Explanation:The statement, ‘the BJP, which made coalition politics the vehicle of its movement towards power at the Centre’ makes it clear that the BJP was at the centre at some point of time and it was part of an alliance or coalition that took BJP to the position of power. Therefore, options, A, D and E are all incorrect. It has been stated that the BJP ‘senses some kind of threat’ from the ‘willingness of the Congress to accommodate the smaller regional parties in a broad secular alliance’ and this implies that C is also incorrect. The author brings out that , ‘this cannot be said of several other current allies of the BJP – especially if they feel the electoral wind is blowing in favor of the Congress with reference to political parties who will definitely not join the Congress alliance. Therefore, B is the correct answer.
Question – 2
2. Congress is finding it difficult to form a coalition government at the centre because
- A. the Kerala coalition model is difficult to replicate at the national level
- B. most of the political parties are its rivals at the national level
- C. the smaller parties are unwilling to cooperate
- D. the allies for the coalition government are also rivals at the regional level
- E. it needs to unseat the BJP first
- Answer Explanation:The passage starts on the note that that Kerala coalition model will be difficult to replicate at the centre or at the national level. The reason for this has been cited as the fact that the allies in the states where the party has been able to share power are rivals at another level. Therefore, it emerges that the Congress will have to ‘settle for a junior role in several States before it can build an effective national-level alliance’. This implies that B, C and E are clearly incorrect. On comparing A and D, it can be seen that A is merely reinforcing the fact that the Congress is finding it difficult to form a coalition government at the national level whereas D clearly brings out the reason why it is not able to do so. Therefore, D is the correct answer.
Question – 3
3. Which of the following has been used to substantiate the claim that the Congress does not approve of coalitions?
- A. ‘shedding its inhibitions’
- B. ‘able to share power’
- C. ‘build an effective national-level alliance’
- D. ‘difficulty for the Congress’
- E. ‘prevented the emergence’
- Answer Explanation:The fact that the Congress had inhibitions about coalition governments and alliances has been elucidated at the end of the passage with the statement, ‘By shedding its inhibitions about a coalition arrangement, which effectively prevented the emergence of a non-BJP government alternative in 1999’. Out of all the given answer options, A and E refer to this statement. However, on closer study, it emerges that A is the correct answer as D does not directly substantiate the claim in question whereas A gives clear evidence in support of the claim that the Congress did not support coalitions at that time.
Question – 4
4. What is the author’s perspective on recognising a person’s greatness or calibre?
- A. It is unfair to give recognition only after reciprocating the work
- B. It is not fair to judge a person during his lifetime
- C. People who live after a great man are not the best judges of his work
- D. It is unfair to assume that whatever be the case, it is only after he is gone, that one can retrospect his work
- E. It is unfounded to assume that, in all cases, this recognition can be done only after he is no more
- Answer Explanation:The opening sentences of the passage make it very clear that the author disagrees with the suggestion or question whether a person’s greatness can be recognised only by those who live after him. He is of the opinion that it has been unfairly ‘generalised’; in other words, this cannot hold true for all cases. He then goes on to describe how a work can be recognised depending upon the area to which it belongs, for instance, the arts or sciences or business. Out of the all the given options, D and E seem to be the closest to the author’s perspective on the issue. On comparing D and E, it can be seen that E is the correct answer as D is ambiguous due to the usage of ‘retrospect’ in the context in which it has been used and also because ‘whatever be the case’ is grossly incorrect as outlined in the subsequent sentences of the passage. Therefore, E is the correct answer.
Question – 5
5. Which of the following best describes the relation between a work in arts and that in physical sciences?
- A. Work in arts can be recognised once it is complete, and that in physical sciences can be recognised only by testing it through time
- B. Unlike physical sciences, work in arts is recognisable in its early stages
- C. Work in physical sciences needs time to be confirmed but that in arts just needs to be complete irrespective of the time taken for the same
- D. Unlike physical sciences, work in arts has historical evidence to prove its significance
- E. Unlike arts, work in physical sciences is time dependant
- Answer Explanation:The sentences, ‘In some areas, especially the arts, greatness is often recognizable in its nascent stages. However, in other areas, particularly the physical sciences, greatness must be tested over time before it can be confirmed’ make it amply clear that work in arts is recognisable in its ‘nascent’ or ‘early’ or ‘budding’ stages. This is the different between work in arts and that in physical sciences as the latter can be evaluated only after the passage of time. Out of all the given answer options, B and E are the only options that agree with the content of the passage and therefore, all the other options are clearly incorrect. On comparing B and E, it can be seen that B is the correct answer as it gives a more precise description of the relation.
Question – 6
6. Which of the following has been provided as evidence in support of the claim that art can be recognised for its greatness during the lifetime of its creator?
- A. ‘Can a person’s greatness be recognized only in retrospect’
- B. ‘art can be judged at face value’
- C. ‘We do not require a rear-view mirror to recognize artistic greatness’
- D. ‘incubation period for greatness varies from case to case’
- E. ‘by those who live after him’
- Answer Explanation:The correct answer to this question would be the option that directly refers to the fact that works in arts need not be recognised long after their creator is gone. Options A and E simply refer to a generic question which is not directly related to works in arts and therefore, both are incorrect. D is a statement which is simply a stated fact in respect of business areas. It does not justify the claim in question and is therefore, an incorrect answer option. B and C both refer to works in arts. On comparing the two of them, it can be seen that C is the correct answer as it is a better description of the evidence that has been used to substantiate the claim in question and B simply serves to support this evidence.
Question – 7
7. Based on the contents of the passage, it would be justified to conclude that the string theory
- A. is still in a hypothetical stage
- B. can be recognised as a great work of art only with the passage of time
- C. can be validated only by those scientists who have postulated the theory
- D. is of no consequence in Physics as of now
- E. has been verified practically
- Answer Explanation:The string theory is based on the concepts of Physics and so there is no question of recognising it as a work of art and hence, B is incorrect. It has been clearly brought out that the significance of theories like this can be best judged by scientists who follow them and not their contemporaries. Therefore, C is incorrect. The information, ‘string theory reconciles the two opposing theories, at least mathematically. Yet ‘strings’ have yet to be confirmed empirically’, leads to the conclusion that the string theory has not yet been verified empirically or practically. This means that since it reconciles two opposing theories ‘mathematically’, it is in a hypothetical stage. However, this does not imply that it is of no consequence in Physics as of now. In view of the above, it is evident that A is the correct answer.
Question – 8
8. In the statement, ‘By contrast, in the sciences it is difficult to identify greatness without the benefit of historical perspective’, sciences are being ‘contrasted’ with
- A. historical perspective
- B. claims of theorists
- C. wave theory and quantum theory
- D. similar situations in business
- E. significance of contributions
- Answer Explanation:The author utilises the initial part of the passage to discuss at length how it is difficult to identify greatness in works in science without historical perspective. In other words, works in science need to be given time so that ‘the significance of contributions made by theoretical scientists’ can be judged ‘by scientists who follow them’. The correct answer option would be in opposition to this because then only the use of ‘in contrast’ be justified. A careful study of the given options brings out that D is the only option that directly refers to an area in which the situation is in contrast to what has been referred to in the first sentence as is evident from the statement, ‘In the realm of business, in some cases great achievement is recognizable immediately’. Therefore, D is the correct answer.
Question – 9
9. Which of the following best describes the crux of the issue being dealt with in the passage?
- A. The string theory
- B. Identification of greatness of scientific achievements
- C. Study of the identification of greatness of achievements in different realms
- D. Scientists and their theories
- E. Effect of historical perspective on scientific theories
- Answer Explanation:The entire passage deals with the issue of recognition of greatness of work. Both scientific work and work in arts and business have been referred to in the passage. The term historical perspective has merely been used to refer to an aspect of studying the achievements for their greatness. Therefore, B, D and E are incorrect. On comparing the remaining two options, it can be seen that C is the correct answer as the string theory is not the only subject that has been discussed in the passage and C covers all the topics that have been discussed and is the crux of the issue being discussed in the passage.
Question – 10
10. How has the author described the erstwhile Vajpayee loyalists’ reaction to his resignation?
- A. They behaved in an unexpected and vociferous manner
- B. They were not noticed because of their inactivity and indifference
- C. They were influenced by what had happened in the Congress
- D. They had become prominent because of their reticence
- E. They vehemently supported him in his decision
- Answer Explanation:The beginning of the passage discusses the attitude of Vajpayee’s loyalists of so many years when he offered to step down from his position. The author has used the statement, ‘The so-called loyalists were conspicuous by their silence’, to describe their reaction. This makes it clear that these loyalists had become prominent or were in the limelight because of their silence or inaction. In view of the above, a careful study of the given options brings out that D is the best description of the reaction from these so-called loyalists and hence, D is the correct answer.
Question – 11
11. What is the most likely interpretation of the statement, ‘They could have torn a leaf out of the Congress book’?
- A. Their actions were exactly the opposite when they were in the Congress
- B. The horrid drama was based on what had happened in the Congress
- C. The Congress book had hinted that such a scenario is likely to take place in the BJP
- D. Vajpayee’s supporters had once objected to Sonia’s decision but now they were not objecting to Vajpayee’s decision
- E. Vajpayee’s erstwhile loyalists should take lessons from their counterparts in the Congress
- Answer Explanation:A careful reading of the passage makes it apparent that the BJP and the Congress are two different political parties. The example of the Congress has been cited to illustrate how the party members had reacted when a similar scenario had taken place in the Congress and that scenario is being contrasted with the one that has taken place in the BJP. The preceding sentences deal with how the followers of Vajpayee have behaved in an unexpected manner and the example of the Congress has been cited to illustrate what was expected of them. Therefore, in view of the above, it is evident that E is the correct answer as it precisely describes the interpretation of the statement in question.
Question – 12
12. Which of the following achievements of BJP cannot be attributed to Vajpayee’s leadership?
- A. Being known as a tolerant and unprejudiced political party
- B. Being known as the party that led to liberation
- C. Power at the centre
- D. Convincing other parties for support
- E. Maintaining a lenient and broad-minded facet
- Answer Explanation:The beginning of the passage clearly elucidates the achievements of the BJP that would not have been possible without Vajpayee. The statement, ‘the six-year rule of the party would not have been possible if he had not been the meeting point for the 24 parties in National Democratic Alliance’, makes it clear that options C and D can be attributed to Vajpayee’s leadership and hence, both of them are incorrect answer options to the question asked. The author has used ‘gave the party a liberal face’ to imply that Vajpayee gave the party a liberal, lenient, broad-minded, tolerant and unprejudiced face. The word ‘liberal’ has not been used in the same sense as ‘liberation’ and therefore, options A and E are incorrect and B is the correct answer.
Question – 13
13. Which of the following is not an apt description of the BJP as painted by the author?
- A. The party is liberal, but secular
- B. It is a colossal party
- C. It has non-liberal and conservative policies
- D. It does not agree with the personal views of Vajpayee
- E. It is unabashed when it comes to dropping people who have served their purpose
- Answer Explanation:The beginning of the passage makes it clear that the BJP is a monolithic or a large party and it has no remorse while dropping people who have served their purpose. Therefore, B and E both are apt descriptions of the party and hence, are incorrect answer options to the question asked. When the views of a party are being described, the views of the majority of its members or its leader are taken into account. Vajpayee was the leader of the BJP and the contents of the passage indicate that he has handed over the mantle to Advani. Advani has been described as a ‘hardliner’ and it has also been brought out that ‘the BJP should look every bit Hindu’. Moreover, the passage brings out that ‘the BJP would drop the pretension of being liberal. Vajpayee’s image of a liberal politician and a statesman did not fit into that policy’. Therefore, the party is not secular and it is not liberal either. In view of the above, it is evident that C and D are incorrect and A is the correct answer.
Question – 14
14. Which of the following is the strongest reason why ‘Vajpayee would have been asked to resign in favor of Advani in due course of time’?
- A. ‘Hardliner Advani is a trusted man of the RSS’
- B. ‘the BJP should look every bit Hindu’
- C. ‘Vajpayee’s image of a liberal politician and a statesman’
- D. ‘it has not yet understood India’s ethos’
- E. ‘Vajpayee’s reputation has always been that of the right person in the wrong party’
- Answer Explanation:The passage has clearly brought out that Vajpayee had secular and liberal views and these views did not fit in with the BJP’s policy. Therefore, this is the strongest reason why the author suspects that he would have eventually been asked to resign. Options A, B and E do not directly refer to this reason and hence, they all are incorrect answer options. D is clearly incorrect as it is not even close to the said reason. C directly refers to the reason why Vajpayee would have been asked to resign and so C is the correct answer.
Question – 15
15. Where has the author suggested that Vajpayee is no longer with the BJP?
- A. ‘People are dropped after they have served the purpose’
- B. ‘Vajpayee would have been asked to resign in favor of Advani’
- C. ‘RSS had for some time been thinking of Advani as Vajpayee’s replacement’
- D. ‘Vajpayee fell in that category’
- E. Nowhere in the passage
- Answer Explanation:The beginning of the passage starts on the note that people are dropped after they have served their purpose and that there are no strings attached when such decisions are taken. This is followed with ‘Vajpayee fell in that category’, succeeded by statements where this fact is reinforced. Obviously, this is where the author has suggested that Vajpayee has been dropped from the party. A, B and C also make indirect references to Vajpayee’s resignation, but A is generic, B is an assumption of what would have happened in due course of time depending upon certain situations and C is an indirect reference. When compared with D, it can be seen that A, B and C are all incorrect. Therefore, E is grossly incorrect and D is the correct answer.