1. What are the various aspects of state protection?
- A Protection even to those workers who have migrated from other parts of the country.
- B. Providing security to the citizens of a country efficiently.
- C. The citizens being especially protected against international threats.
- D. Equal protection and security rendered to majority and minority communities.
- E. No distinction among minorities with respect to their citizenship or residence status.
- Answer: ADE
The passage provided to us basically refers to the following of human rights in a country such that all the various types of citizens are provided with security. In the second paragraph, we are told about the multiple aspects that state protection is supposed to have in the wake of human rights laws being passed. It states that the state is supposed to provide security to all its citizens without any discrimination on the basis of their population strength, their having or not having permanent citizenship etc. the correct answers in this regard are options A, D and E.
2. Which among the following are the various facets of ‘integrating diversity’ concept?
- A Giving them chances to be responsible citizens of the state just like the majorities.
- B. Allowing them to impart to the society as a whole.
- C. Opening up equal avenues in front of the minorities to establish themselves in the social spheres.
- D. Providing proper opportunities to the minority communities in the state.
- E. Allowing them to develop their individual identities.
- Answer: ABCDE
The concept of ‘integrating diversity’ revolves around gathering up all parts and sections of the society to strengthen them as a whole, such that they can impart to the position of the country. The aspects which it involves within it are those of providing equal and adequate opportunities to establish and maintain identities, to allow them to impart to the country’s development and also to develop their own identities in the society. All the listed options in this respect are the correct answers as they include these aspects in them, in one way or the other.
3. How can genuine equality among the groups in the society be ensured?
- A Special attention to providing for the equal amount of economic possibilities for the minority groups.
- B. By giving the right to choose the governing authorities to the minorities also.
- C. Seeking and permitting minorities participation in political and public affairs more efficiently.
- D. By satisfying the language and educational needs of the minorities specially so as to render them stronger future prospects.
- E. By spreading a moral education about the minority-majority divide being a social stigma.
- Answer: ACD
The last part of the passage concerns the three important measures that need to be taken in order to ensure a genuine (in passage – ‘de facto’) equality among the minority and majority groups in the society. The three measures include the satisfaction of educational and linguistic needs, allowing participation in public decisions and lastly the providing of equal economic possibilities to the minority communities. The correct answers in this respect are options A, C and D; while the rest two are incorrect answers. The second option considers the providing of equal voting opportunities that the government agencies have already provided to all citizens and the last option stands inappropriate to the context.
4. Which demands according to the writer of the passage deserve better attention than the political funds?
- A To provide better education opportunities to the citizens.
- B. Serving the health related requirements of the people.
- C. Educational donations to institutions.
- D. Taking care of the safety and security of the citizens.
- E. The funds for proper functioning of transport systems.
- Answer: ABD
The passage provided to us explains the various implications of a bill being passed, under which the state would provide funds for serving the economic requirements of the political parties. The passage tells about its positive and negative aspects that need to be considered well in advance before the bill is presented or passed. In one of the parts of the passage we are told about the various other economic needs that need to be met before this matter is taken into hands as they carry more importance when put into a comparison. The options A, B and D explain these needs so are the correct answers to this question.
5. What kind of a bill is being discussed in the passage according to you?
- A Bill for bringing about curbs in the highly corrupt political scenario prevailing in today’s times.
- B. Bill to pass a regulation for the state to provide funds to the various parties for their functioning.
- C. A bill that would control the varying amounts of resources that political parties spend in their promotional activities.
- D. To put an end to uncontrolled and unfair expenditure of political parties for bringing common people under its influence.
- E. A bill to control the influencing of political parties by the funds that are supplied to them by bureaucrats and businessmen.
- Answer: ABCDE
The passage as such discusses the various aspects of a bill that is proposed to be passed and would bring about huge changes in the working of political parties in the country. The bill, as we can gather from the passage, is meant to provide equal funds to all political parties in the country, which would result in less participation of business class and bureaucracy in it, along with controlling of the expenditures that they make in their promotional activities and wrong usage of economic resources. All the options A, B, C, D and E provide us with these answers, so are correct options. The first option uses a comprehensive term for all the ill-effects of unfair funding, so we take it as a correct answer.
6. How can state funding be beneficial to the country’s working?
- A Regulating a fair and influence free method of political funding.
- B. Knowledge of the funds being spent by the parties being available to the government.
- C. Maintenance of a proportion in the funds being utilized by the parties.
- D. Gaining surety of corrupt funding means being away from the political working.
- E. Ensuring that funds do not decide the agenda and working process of the various parties.
- Answer: ACD
While the passage here tells about the ill-effects of state funding and how it can harm the other matter of importance that are supposed to be dealt by the country, we are also told about benefits it can hold for the country’s working also. These are regulations of fair and proportionate funds being spent by the parties, along with avoiding determining the political agendas of the parties. The answers that stand up to these details are contained in options A, C and E, while the rest two options are lacking in certain ways or are inappropriate to be taken as correct answers. The second option is wrong because even after granting state funds, the parties can take private funds also, which makes an accounting by the government impossible and the fourth option is wrong because even after state funds being provided, there cannot be a surety gained for the system to remain corruption free.
7. The scholars from which of the following group of countries did not attend the conference that has been discussed in the passage?
- A Turkey, Russia and Kazakhstan
- B. Thailand, Burma, Malaysia and Cambodia
- C. Bahrain, Georgia, Qatar and Syria
- D. Afghanistan, Maldives, Bhutan and Nepal
- E. Japan , Mongolia and Korea
- Answer: AD
The very beginning of the passage gives us an account of a conference that was held in Singapore to discuss the governance and security issues concerning Asian countries. The passage tells us that the conference was attended by scholars from South Asia, North East Asia and South East Asia. The options B, C and E comprise of the names of the countries that belong to these parts of Asia so the scholars from these countries are supposed to have attended the conference. The correct answers thus, are contained in the rest two options, B and D, which do not fall under these zones of Asia.
8. Why do the ruling elite declare the non-military security aspects to be ‘naive and unrealistic’?
- A They have a firm belief in a militarist approach towards security matters.
- B. They are high advocators of emotionality and humanitarianism.
- C. Their rejection of non-military and human approaches due to their military influences.
- D. They believe in formulating and following a realistic and practical policy for foreign affairs.
- E. They like to give an equal response to the violent methods adopted by agencies endangering national security.
- Answer: ACD
The passage, in its latter half, puts before us the various ways in which the ruling elite class of the society that comprises of ex-servicemen largely believes in practical and realistic methods of approaching security methods as for them, as military normally takes it, emotions rule out logical thinking in a person. Their rejection of emotions and humanitarian thoughts and advocacy of military ways is what stands as the explanation of their calling non-military methods to be ‘naive and unrealistic’. The correct answers thus are contained in options A, C and D.
9. Which among the following correctly explain the comparative relation of countries over their sensitivity to security issues?
- A South Asia < North East Asia = South East Asia
- B. South East Asia > South Asia
- C. South Asia = South East Asia
- D. North East Asia = South East Asia > South Asia
- E. South Asia > North East Asia
- Answer: ABD
The comparative analysis drawn in this question finds an account in the sentence ‘In general, the greatest sensitivity to the human and non-traditional sources of security obtained in Southeast Asia, so in Northeast Asia, and least in South Asia.’ On the basis of which we see that options A, B and D contain the correct answers, while the rest two options are incorrect.
10. Which factors among the following can be explained as the reasons for the ’emerging political crises’?
- A The conflicting positions of modernity and traditional principles.
- B. There being no alternatives with the people to come out of the situation.
- C. The incompatibility of democratic system with the mind sets of Indian people.
- D. The insufficiently developed state of capitalism.
- E. Religion being a bigger criterion for people to set principles of social conduct.
- Answer: ACDE
The passage provided to us here is an account of the problem of the political crisis that the Indian state is facing presently under the impact of multiple political, economical and social influences. The passage also brings to light the possible reasons that people belonging to multiple schools of thought have coined for it. Going through all those reasons, the correct answers to the question are contained in the options A, C, D and E.
11. Who have been explained as ‘tall and inspiring men’?
- A The leaders who had a tall stature and were good orators to inspire people.
- B. The prominent leaders who framed the laws of the state in India after independence.
- C. The harbingers of Indian democracy who established the Indian state on the models set by foreign countries.
- D. The prominent personalities who had the power to influence the thoughts of people.
- E. The visionaries of the Independent India who had aimed to frame India into a secular state.
- Answer: BCDE
The sentence ‘Had the ‘tall and inspiring men’ in the decades after Independence not imposed ‘alien’ western institutions, they argue, the political crisis reflected in the conflict over secularism could have been avoided.’, in the passage afflicts a sarcastic remark on the leaders and politicians who framed the modern day governing system in India. They had framed the Indian governing system on a foreign model and had visualized a secular state to be established in the country. The answer to our question lies in these traits of the leaders and the options B, C, D and E, which are the correct answers.
12. What approximate reasons does the author of the passage give for the Indian people continuing to get subjected by political processes?
- A The mechanical act of going to vote in every election even after being dissatisfied with the performance and conduct of our representatives in powerful positions.
- B. A possible tendency to keep on gaining more suffering at their hands.
- C. An infallible faith for getting respite some day.
- D. Having no alternative ways to protect ourselves against their activities.
- E. The belief that people carry for the elected representatives in the government.
- Answer: ABD
In the first part of the passage given to us, the author presents us with a few approximations about the reasons for which the Indian people are still under the influence of inappropriate representatives. The sentences ‘According to a survey, 75 percent of the people are convinced that our representatives ‘don’t care’ about us and that even the threat of holding regular elections will not force them into being more attentive. Why, then, do we turn out in election after election, to vote for the same self-serving tribe? Are we suckers for punishment or are there no alternatives?’ explain these reasons and on the basis of these, the correct answers to the question are contained in options A, B and D.
13. Which basic reasons can be cited for the nutrition differences between the children of South Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa?
- A Lack of proper sanitation facilities.
- B. Political disturbances in the states and countries.
- C. Living in non-urban areas.
- D. Women being granted an unequal and low status in their families.
- E. The improper educational facilities.
- Answer: ACD
The passage provides us with information about the various causative and consequent factors behind the gender inequality that prevails in the south Asian and sub-Saharan societies. These are also linked with the lack of nutrition in the children of these places and other than gender inequality; the reasons for this condition of children are lack of sanitation and urbanization. The correct answers thus, are options A, C and D. The other two options can also be indirect reasons, but we do not find any reference to them in the passage, so we cannot take them as the correct answers.
14. What can be the possible results of the prevailing low status of Indian women and gender inequality?
- A The status of women going further low.
- B. A future composed of children who have diminutive physical growth patterns.
- C. People have lives that are hard and difficult to coped up with , especially for women.
- D. The male population being the only ones left on the surface of earth.
- E. Unexpected types of hardships and miseries being inflicted upon people as the balance of life can be maintained only if the two sections of the society impart equally to it.
- Answer: BCE
The answers to this question can be found in the last sentence of the passage, ‘If we ignore gender inequality, we will continue to produce stunted children, wasted lives, and untold misery.’ The sentence brings before us in a crisp and explainable form, the consequences of the prevailing gender inequality and therefore, the correct answers are in options B, C and E.
15. What were the possible questions asked to the women on the basis of which their status was measured in a comparative analysis of developing countries?
- A What was the educational status that they and their husbands carried with them?
- B. What kind of a position were they enjoying in their homes?
- C. What was the age difference between them and their husbands?
- D. Did they impart to the financial resources of their family?
- E. How old they were at the time of their marriage?
- Answer: ABCDE
The question wants us to consider the various criterions that were taken into account while measuring the status of various country women in their homes. The sentence, ‘It measured a woman’s position in the home ______ whether she works for cash, her age at marriage, and the difference in age and education between spouses.’ Gives an account of these criterions, on the basis of which we can find the kind of questions that must have been placed before the women during the analysis. All the options given are the correct answers in this respect as they all provide with the kind of information required for the analysis.