1. Which of the following have been used to describe Vajpayee’s personality?
- A resolute
- B. an ingenious speaker
- C. irresolute
- D. indecisive
- E. adamant
- Answer: BCD
The beginning of the passage brings out that Vajpayee was a resourceful orator and so B is a correct answer. It has also been brought out that he was weak and vacillating when it came to taking action against communalist or fanatic elements. Therefore he was irresolute and indecisive but not resolute and adamant. In view of the above, it is evident that B, C and D are the correct answers.
2. According to the passage, public opinion about Vajpayee would have been different if he
- A had acted on his incompetency
- B. took sides with the fanatic elements of the party
- C. had supported Advani and Joshi
- D. had been more confident in his approach with others
- E. followed his intuitions
- Answer: DE
The passage ends on the note that ‘The verdict on him would have been different if he had only acted on instincts which were healthy and not allowed his diffidence to dictate him’. This means that A is incorrect and D and E are clearly correct. The author states that Vajpayee is to be blamed for not taking any action against the fanatic elements. This means the public did not expect him to take sides with the fanatics at all and so B is incorrect. People mistook his silence for his agreement with what Advani and Joshi did. This action was not acceptable. Therefore, it is evident that actually supporting Advani and Joshi would not have affected the public opinion about him and hence, C is also incorrect. Therefore, D and E are the correct answers.
3. Which of the following can be attributed to Advani and Joshi?
- A They did not agree with what Vajpayee thought or did
- B. They had Vajpayee’s unflinching support
- C. They were responsible for the fact that people did not give Vajpayee his due
- D. They were the indomitable and steadfast members of the same party to which Vajpayee belonged
- E. They were the reason why Vajpayee could not stand up against the communists elements
- Answer: ACD
The statement, ‘Vajpayee may have a grievance that people did not give him the due for all that he did. He should blame his party’s stalwarts like Advani and Murli Manohar Joshi’, makes it amply clear that C and D are correct answer options. The fact that whatever Vajpayee did was undid by Advani and Joshi makes it clear that A is also correct. A careful reading of the passage brings out that B is incorrect. E is incorrect as the author clearly mentions that ‘Vajpayee is to blame for not taking action against communalist or fanatic elements’. In view of the above, it is evident that A, C and D are the correct answers.
4. ‘The BJP should realize this’ is referring to which of the following?
- A The country’s pluralism does not include Hinduism
- B. Cultural diversity has been in the country for so long that it cannot be overridden by a national culture
- C. Cultural nationalism does not oppose the pluralism of the country
- D. It is not possible to have a single religion represent the country’s masses and culture
- E. Indian culture is not synonymous with pluralism
- Answer: BD
The opening sentences of the passage discuss the cultural status of the country. It has been brought out that the country has a long tradition of pluralism or cultural diversity and that the cultural nationalism cannot transcend or surpass this diversity. Also, it is clarified that Indian culture cannot mean Hinduism. This means that ‘The BJP should realize this’ has been used to refer to the country’s pluralism and the fact that it cannot be surpassed by cultural nationalism. In view of the above, it is evident, that out of all the given answer options, B and D are the only options that exactly indicate what the statement in question is referring to. Hence, B and D are the correct answers.
5. Which of the following suggests that BJP has lost in elections?
- A ‘The BJP may lose the ground still further’
- B. ‘India can never be a Hindu nation’
- C. ‘the party does not want to face the truth’
- D. ‘the reasons for the BJP’s debacle’
- E. ‘The common man still remains largely free of the poison’
- Answer: ADE
It has been brought out that BJP was elected to power in Uttar Pradesh. This statement is followed by the claim that although BJP has affected majority of the Hindu middle class, but the common man still remains untouched. The statement, ‘Results of the recent elections should have made the RSS wiser’ is made in reference to the claim that ‘RSS is convinced that polarizing the electorate on Hindu-Muslim lines has given it electoral advantage’. This implies that the BJP has lost the elections somewhere else. The statements at A, D and E simply reinforce this fact. Therefore, they all are correct. B and C do not directly imply or suggest that the BJP has lost in elections and so they both are incorrect. Hence, A, D and E are the correct answers.
6. Which of the following is a valid conclusion based on the contents of the passage?
- A Vajpayee’s reputation is untarnished
- B. Modi has excessive narrow views
- C. The RSS is of the opinion that dividing the population on the basis of religion would be in their favour in the elections
- D. By not accepting the chairmanship, Vajpayee would have cleansed himself of the sins he committed by not opposing Modi
- E. Vajpayee’s reputation has been besmirched
- Answer: BCDE
The statement that ‘Vajpayee would have retrieved part of his soiled reputation’ implies that his reputation has been tarnished or besmirched. Therefore, A is incorrect and E is correct. Modi is seen as a ‘symptom of the disease of parochialism’ and so B is correct. C is also correct as implied by the statement, ‘The RSS is convinced that polarizing the electorate on Hindu-Muslim lines has given it electoral advantage’. The usage of ‘probably his catharsis for not having taken any action against Modi’ makes it amply clear that E is also correct. Therefore, B, C, D and E are all correct.
7. Which of the following have been used to indicate that US and the Soviet Union were rivals?
- A ‘the boundary dispute between India and China’
- B. ‘The base provided by Pakistan to the US near Peshawar’
- C. ‘launching a satellite’
- D. ‘maintaining surveillance over parts of the Soviet Union’
- E. ‘The election of John F. Kennedy’
- Answer: BCD
The boundary dispute between India and China has been discussed to illustrate how India and the US came closer because they were now having issues with a common rival. This fact has not been used to indicate that the US and the Soviet Union were rivals and therefore, A is incorrect. The election of John F. Kennedy has also be highlighted to bring out that he was instrumental in bringing the US and India closer and therefore, E is also incorrect as it does not indicate any rivalry between the US and the Soviet Union. All the three remaining options refer to evidence that has been provided in support of the claim that the US and the Soviet Union were rivals and therefore, B, C and D are the correct answers.
8. Based on the contents of the passage, which of the following correctly describe the relations between the US and India?
- A They were better than those of the US with China
- B. They were the same as those of the US with the Soviet Union
- C. They were not better than those of India with the Soviet Union
- D. They deteriorated because of the US-Pakistan alliance
- E. They improved when John F. Kennedy came into power
- Answer: CE
The contents of the passage clearly highlight that India was closer to the Soviet Union, than it was to the US. The status of the relations between Pakistan and India has not been indicated anywhere in the passage. It has been brought out that China had tense relations with both the superpowers, that is, the US and the Soviet Union. Also, the US and the Soviet Union have been clearly brought out as rivals. The relations between India and the US were not that of rivals but they were not very friendly either. It was after the election of John F. Kennedy as the US President that the ties between the US and India saw an improvement. In view of the above, it is apparent that C and E are the correct answers as these are the only answer options that give an apt description of the Indo-US relations.
9. The fact that there was a cold war raging between the US and the Soviet Union is ratified by the statement that
- A the Soviets were using subversion tactics on Asian countries
- B. the US was carrying out surveillance over parts of Soviet Union
- C. the Soviet ideology was based on Socialism
- D. there was a race for military supremacy between the two superpowers
- E. the Indo-Soviet ties were apocryphal
- Answer: BD
The correct answer options would be the ones that refer to evidence in support of the fact that the US and the Soviet were indirectly trying to outdo each other. There was no ‘open’ war, but both of them were using tactics to establish their supremacy. The passage starts on the note that the Soviet Union was attracting Asian countries; this is definitely not the same as employing ‘subversion tactics’ and therefore, option A is factually incorrect. Similarly E is also factually incorrect as the ties between India and the Soviet Union were not ‘apocryphal’. Out of the remaining options, C is the only incorrect answer as the Socialist ideology of the Soviet Union was not directly related to the cold war it was undergoing with the US. B and D refer to facts that clearly highlight the fact that there was a cold war raging between the two superpowers and therefore, B and D are the correct answers.
10. Which of the following relations between countries are justified as elucidated in the passage?
- A India and China are rivals but both are on friendly terms with North Korea
- B. China, Pakistan and North Korea all are allies
- C. China and Pakistan are allies, but both have tense relations with the US
- D. The US and North Korea are rivals
- E. Pakistan and the US were allies pre 1962
- Answer: CDE
A careful reading of the passage brings out that Pakistan, US and Britain were allies before 1962, after which Pakistan started improving its relations with China much to the disappointment of the US. This implies that China and the US were rivals. China supported North Korea when numerous American soldiers lost their lives, this implies that the war was being fought between the US and North Korea and they were rivals. There is no indication of the relations that North Korea had with either Pakistan or with India. In view of the above, it is evident that A and B are incorrect; and C, D and E are the correct answers.
11. Which of the following do not refer to steps taken by the US to indicate its displeasure against Pakistan?
- A No assistance for improving Pakistani airports
- B. Rushing aid to India during the 1962 conflict
- C. Expediting of meeting to provide aid to Pakistan
- D. Signing of the Boundary Accord
- E. Deferment of meeting to provide aid to Pakistan
- Answer: BCD
The latter part of the passage highlights the steps taken by the US to show its disapproval of the improving relations between China and Pakistan. The two steps taken by the US were ‘cancelling aid earmarked for improving the Dhaka airport ‘and ‘postponed the Annual Aid to Pakistan consortium meeting’. Therefore, the correct answer options would be the ones that do not refer to these actions taken by the US. Options A and B clearly refer to these actions and therefore they are incorrect answer options to the question asked. According to the author, B does not refer to an action taken by the US to display its displeasure against Pakistan; rather the US was Pakistan’s ally when this action was taken. Therefore, B is correct. The meeting for providing aid to Pakistan was ‘postponed’. This implies that the US did not ‘expedite’ this meeting. Therefore, C is also correct. Signing of the Boundary Accord was carried out between China and Pakistan and this action cannot be attributed to the US and hence, D is correct. Therefore, B, C and D are the correct answers.
12. According to the author, Pakistan was no longer an ally of the US because of
- A the changes in Pakistan’s foreign policy
- B. US disapproval of its conflict with India
- C. the improving relations between the Soviet Union and Pakistan
- D. the death of numerous American soldiers in the war with North Korea
- E. stagnation in Pakistan’s foreign policy
- Answer: AD
The passage starts on the note that US was Pakistan’s ally, but Pakistan felt abandoned by its western allies when they assisted India during the Sino-Indian war. Pakistan then changed its foreign policy and started improving its relations with China leading to disapproval from the US, thereby affecting its relations with the US. The author does not discuss the effect of the relations Pakistan had with the Soviet Union with reference to its ties with the US and neither does he refer to the views of the US in respect of the Indo-Pakistan relations. Therefore, B and C are both incorrect. It has been brought out that Pakistan had changed its foreign policy; rather it has matured and this led to a series of events that earned the displeasure of the US. Therefore, A is correct and E is incorrect. D is the reason why the US was not happy with China and this led to displeasure against Pakistan when it started improving its relations with China. Therefore, D is also correct. Hence, A and D are the correct answers.
13. Pakistan’s role in the invasion of Afghanistan by Soviet Union was
- A to support the Soviet Union
- B. to support the intrusion
- C. that of an ally for the US
- D. that of the frontline state which was the most affected by the intervention
- E. to oppose the intervention
- Answer: CE
It has been brought out that the Soviet withdrew from Afghanistan after a decade during which Pakistan was the frontline state against the intervention and it provided close political and military cooperation. As Pakistan was the ‘frontline state against this audacious intervention’, it is evident that it did not support the Soviet Union in its act of intervention. Therefore, A and B are clearly incorrect. D is factually incorrect. Therefore, C and E are the correct answers as they clearly elucidate the role of Pakistan during this period.
14. According to the author, there have been times when Pakistan has been seen by the world as
- A the only Islamic nation that is a nuclear power
- B. an abettor of terrorism
- C. a crucial ally during the intervention in Afghanistan
- D. a supporter against terrorism
- E. a country determined to uproot internal religious fanaticism
- Answer: ACDE
The author has clearly outlined Pakistan as an ally in the Afghanistan intervention case and also in the war against terrorism. Therefore, C and D are correct, but B is incorrect. The last part of the passage clearly states that the Pakistani President is putting up a fight against the ‘religious extremism within the country’ and so E is also correct. Pakistan has been brought out as the ‘the sole Islamic country having nuclear weapons’ and so A is correct. Therefore, A, C, D and E are the correct answers.
15. Owing to the prevalent opinion about Pakistan, the September 2001 terrorist attacks
- A were suspected to have been conspired in Pakistan
- B. could have been used as a excuse to sort out the Muslim country which was also a nuclear power
- C. led to the Al-Qaeda fleeing to Afghanistan
- D. could not be used as an excuse for retaliation against Pakistan as Pakistan would have proved to be of help in the war against terror in Afghanistan
- E. prompted the US to take action as a result of which the Muslim Taliban regime took it upon themselves to give shelter to the Al-Qaeda
- Answer: BD
The September 2011 terrorist attacks have been discussed in the latter half of the passage. It has not been implied anywhere in the passage that these attacks were planned or hatched in Pakistan and hence, A is incorrect. The statement, ‘Given the overall reservations in the West about Pakistan’s nuclear program, some policy-makers would have favored availing the terrorist outrage for pre-emptive attacks against the sole Islamic country having nuclear weapons’, makes it amply clear that B is correct. This statement is followed by the information that since Al-Qaeda was located in Afghanistan, the US had other priorities and Pakistan had joined US as an ally in this war against terrorism. There is no indication of the fact that Al-Qaeda had fled to Afghanistan or that the Taliban had provided shelter to the Al-Qaeda as a result of the actions taken by the US. In view of the above, it is evident that A, C and E are incorrect and B and D are the correct answers.